Put Reading First: Comprehension and Fluency Teaching Methods
Article 1: Comprehension
Methods or strategies that work when teaching comprehension
This article addresses the general instructional tasks as strategies that work while teaching comprehension. The organization of comprehension approaches could be in a three-part structure with particular operations that are utilized either before, after or when reading. The provision of instructions to the learners as well as the employment of various comprehension approaches when reading accelerates their comprehension.
Before reading, the instructor may inspire the learners through tasks which may foster their interests. This enhances the relevance of the text to the learners in some way. The instructor may activate the background know-how of learners that is critical to text content by debating what the learners will read as what they already have clues about the subject. Moreover, learners should be aware of the text arrangement (Strategies that Promote Comprehension, 2017). On the other hand, learners through the help of their instructors may develop a purpose for reading, recognize and debate problematic words, concepts as well as phrases within the text. They may also preview the text, think, write or talk regarding the text’s subject.
During reading, an instructor might remind the leaners on the manner in which they can make use of the comprehension approaches when practicing to monitor their comprehension. Instructors may pose questions that keep the learners on the right path and put their focus on the primary ideas as well as important points within the text. A teacher may derive some techniques that allow the student to pay attention to the sections of the text in which inferences are made. They can also ask learners to provide summaries of the main parts as well as events. Students can also be motivated to return to the predictions which they have created before to identify whether the text has confirmed them. Students may define and précis critical ideas as well as supportive details, create links between and among the critical ideas and link new thoughts with the existing contextual information.
After reading, the instructor should guide debate asking the learners to remember and state using their words critical portions of the text. Retelling here students can orally recreate a story they read enables the learners to activate their contextual information and ultimately boosts their comprehension of the reading.
According to this article, being a good reader demands that a learner should have explicit, persistent as well as intensive instructions. Explicit comprehension is a method whereby, an instructor selects the methods that are closely associated with the text that is being studied (Mckeown & Beck, 2015). The tutor thinks keenly the method that is most effective to use and the reason why it is essential and how it assists the learners to learn as well as the opportunities that students have for using the approach on their own.
Implicit strategy motivates the learners to plan of reading so that they may have a clear objective as well as purpose. Students must figure out the manner in which they can utilize the approach themselves. During the process of reading, the learners should offer responses that involve them in the classroom debates (Mckeown & Beck, 2015). Learners can engage their repair approaches when there is a breakdown incomprehension. Besides, this article demonstrates the role of text awareness in the enhancement of comprehension among learners. Text organization is essential in that it boosts learners’ understanding.
Leaners are informed on the manner in which they can identify the recurring story regarding the grammatical components which offers them the schema to a story. The third strategy highlighted in the article is where the learners are motivated to read broadly. The article emphasizes that integral the comprehension of instructions. Broad reading is essential for the enhancement of daily opportunities the peer, teacher and self-recommended texts. Reading also enables the students to understand the concepts with significant meaning to tem as well as their ability to select the approaches which are more suited to a particular text (Mckeown & Beck, 2015). The results of this article are that motivation to read widely, comprehension of text arrangement and explicit, intensive as well as persistent instructions are essential for the enhancement of comprehension among the learners.
Article 1: Fluency
Methods or strategies that work when teaching Fluency
Fluency refers to the ability to read faster, more expressively and smoother. Fluent reading lines the swiftness of speech. For the beginning readers, fluency is often a challenge, and they read word-to-word with much struggle. One of the common strategies of building fluency is construing and re-construing the decodable words in the linked text. Repeated reading enables a person to grasp the text. The leaner can then utilize the text and decode the words with the use of known correspondence.
According to this article, fluency can be fostered using two major approaches which include; modeling as well as practice with recurrent reading under a time constraint. On the other hand, the indirect strategy involves the encouragement of learners to voluntarily read when they have free time. The use of repeated reading involves restricted lessons (Two Methods for Developing Fluency, 2013). Children are with different texts until their fluency is improved. Repeated reading is most appropriate for tutors who have attained a primer instructional phase. For effectiveness, decodable texts are mostly preferred. Tutors can graph the speed at which learners can read in a given time interval or utilize the check sheets to enhance partner readings.
The integration of graphing approach is encouraging as it makes progress notable. Furthermore, its emphasis is on speed instead of precision. The indirect approach involves a sustained still reading where learners are provided with a chance of reading on a daily basis. Such opportunities enable them to discover the pleasure related to reading. Learners can instill a positive attitude in reading texts. Moreover, students are provided an opportunity to discuss their perceptions about various texts with their classmate (Tavakoli & Hunter, 2017). Everybody is involved in the reading process with no one reporting whatever they have read. The indirect approach is encouraged by providing the learners with large volumes of reading materials and numerous chances of selecting. Introduction of the reading materials is done to motivate the learners to make informed decisions on whatever materials they endeavor to read.
This article provides ten basic strategies that learners can embark on integrating into their reading to foster their fluency. The first strategy used to enhance fluency amongst the students is the teacher requesting the students to use a finger or ruler to follow along when reading so that they don’t lose the place they are learning when moving across and along the pages. Another method is letting the students repeat reading something several times (10 Fluency strategies for struggling readers, 2017). It improves the students’ morale and exposure to words especially the common words. The other way is listening and recording the students as they read loud as it helps the teacher recognize the words which each particular student has difficulty in reading. The article illustrates that tutors should allow their students to read something for a couple of times when assisting to boost their frequency. Continous reading is essential in the sense that a learner eases their learning ability (10 Fluency strategies for struggling readers, 2017). Learners also increase their motivation due to the repeated exposure to different words and phrases.
Pre-teach vocabulary is also essential for enabling the learners to improve their learning abilities. Pre-teaching of vocabularies can be done through the interactive classroom operation. Crossword puzzles are some of the techniques that tutors embark on using to enhance the learner’s ability to grasp what they are teaching. Learners can also make use of different reading books as well as other materials to increase their exposure to words and texts (10 Fluency strategies for struggling readers, 2017). Teachers can also drill the sight words and attempt to use the various font as well as text sizes, particularly for the visually impaired learners to identify some of the challenges they encounter while reading the texts.
Effective methods of teaching fluency to students should ensure that a stress-free environment has been established for the learners. As a result, learners will enjoy reading various books and materials. Moreover, their stress and anxiety will significantly reduce thus enhancing their fluency (10 Fluency strategies for struggling readers, 2017). The conclusion results of this article are, therefore, that students should constantly be guided so that their fluency pace can increase. Tutors should continuously motivate and support their students in both readings as well as write to gather relevant skills if their fluency fails to come naturally.
Mckeown, M. G., & Beck, I. L. (2015). Effective Classroom Talk Is Reading Comprehension Instruction. Socializing Intelligence Through Academic Talk and Dialogue, 51-62.
10 Fluency strategies for struggling readers | TTRS Blog. (2017, July 21). Retrieved March 02, 2018, from http://www.readandspell.com/us/fluency-strategies-for-struggling-readers
Two Methods for Developing Fluency. (2013, November 07). Retrieved February 26, 2018, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/two-methods-developing-fluency
Strategies that Promote Comprehension. (2017, August 23). Retrieved February 26, 2018, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/strategies-promote-comprehension.
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