PSY 505 Written Exercise Guidelines and Rubric
For this assignment, you are expected to produce a well written, reasoned, logical, and most importantly,
thoroughly analyzed response befitting a graduate student. Papers should be 1,200 words (excluding title
and reference pages).
Ensure that the paper conforms to APA standards of writing (including a title page, abstract, discussion,
reference page, in-text citations, and appropriate formatting). This is not an opinion piece. Theories are to
be supported with facts, evidence, and scholarly research. Each student’s goal is to find new and
innovative ideas in policing that are not the “same old, same old.”
The paper should be of quality and format that is sufficient to merit publication in a professional journal.
Toward that end, you will use a minimum of three peer reviewed scholarly journal articles, professional
journals, or books from the Saint Leo University Library to craft the paper. You may use information
gathered from a reputable website as one of the sources. A reputable website is one maintained by
trustworthy and renowned organizations or individuals. For example, for a conservative viewpoint on
a topic, The Heritage Foundation site would be valid. Conversely, a liberal perspective may come from
The Cato Institute.
Newspaper, magazine, opinion, or op-ed pieces may be used as secondary sources; in addition to, not
in place of, the three primary source minimum.
Non-reputable articles from general websites like Wikipedia do not constitute peer reviewed articles,
professional journals, or texts. Anyone can post any article on Wikipedia as one can create a website
about anything. This makes the information very unreliable for academic research. As a result, sources
used from these types of sites will not be accepted.
While writing the paper, exemplify the university core value of excellence as defined:
Excellence: Saint Leo University is an educational enterprise. All of us, individually and collectively, work
hard to ensure that our students develop the character, learn the skills, and assimilate the knowledge
essential to become morally responsible leaders. The success of our University depends upon a
conscientious commitment to our mission, vision, and goals.
The paper will be submitted directly to the appropriate module’s assignment Dropbox. (Dropbox baskets
are linked to Turnitin.) Each student will also copy and paste his/her paper into a new discussion thread
on the appropriate Written Exercise Discussion Board as opposed to attaching the document to the
message. This will make examining the paper easier for your classmates. It is possible that formatting
may change when pasting your paper; however, papers will not be graded from within this forum.
During each module, you will also critically examine at least three colleagues’ papers and review their
theories and merits. Reasoned examination and critical analysis are expected on papers in a manner
that is professional, academic, courteous, well supported, and well thought out. Commentary responses
should be at least 100 words.
The goal is to strengthen and improve the arguments and theories of colleagues. Each student should
ask him/herself “what is being written, how can it be improved, are there holes in the research and if so,
how can they be filled.” Commentary on papers should move the piece to which the student is responding
forward, strengthen deficiencies in theory, or pose pointed rhetorical questions about a proposal. This
means that even if a student agrees with the premise or theory, (s)he should add to, or build upon it.
Writing to a colleague “I agree with what you wrote” and then proceeding to quote word-for-word what
was written does not show critical analysis or move the paper forward.
Rubric (65 total points per module):
Written Exercise Paper/Initial Post (50 total points per module):
Posits new ideas,
“outside the box”
theories, as well
as assessing the
value of theories
in real world
Research adds to
as opposed to
the same ideas
little or no
No or few
No to poor
paper or do
to the topic
in real world
adds to the
adds to the
Exceptional (A- to A) Performance is outstanding, significantly above the
Proficient (B to B+) Skills and standards are at the level of expectation of a
Basic (C to B-) Skills and standards are at the minimal
acceptable graduate level but improvements
Novice (F) Performance is not of a graduate level; the skills or
standards are not sufficiently demonstrated at this
0 Assignment not submitted.
1,200 words and proper APA
format is used
Paper is well
Paper is well
to the initial
Written Exercise Responses to Classmates (15 points per module):
comments on a
paper by fully
theories of the
colleague s/he is
needed, or adds
In either case
and improves the
research to which
adds to the
views with valid
to at least three
in the way of
reads like an
Does little to
of the paper
tone to a
add to, or
adds to the
Little to no
that adds to
validity of the
No spelling or
Detecting Lies and Deceit
During the police investigations, the interrogators use the different tactics and techniques to deception to determine the whether the suspect committed the offense. Some of the common methods include the use of deceit, false references to certain evidence, and the use of psychological interviewing deceit approaches. In this paper, it will discuss the falsifying forensic evidence to push the suspects to reveal information during the police investigations (Bull, Valentine & Williamson, 2009). The use falsification of the forensic evidence is an effective technique in interrogating the suspects in the police custody. The technique is commonly used due to its ability to push the suspects into a confession during the interrogation process. Therefore, the paper is seeking to evaluate the nature and implications of using the false forensic evidence to get information about the alleged offenders.
Based on the influence of the tactic of using false forensic evidence, it can alter the nature of the forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. Largely, the tactic of using false forensic evidence has been successful in getting admissions of guilt from the real perpetrators compared to the use of the conventional methods of interrogation. However, there are concerns on the controversy relating to interrogation techniques that could lead to false confessions (Kelly, Miller, Redlich & Kleinman, 2013). There are exists compelling reasons and arguments to support the use of the tactic as it allows for the interrogators to get the actual information which is true about most police interrogations. However, the ethical concerns related to the use of deception information cannot be overlooked.
The benefits of using the false forensic evidence are that it relies on persuasion rather than the use of physical force. Persuasion advantages of the tactic are useful in overcoming the resistance of the suspects giving out the relevant information. The interrogators are only able to use words and mental persuasion to get the suspect to the belief that they should comply with the relevant measures. It also gives the interrogators the dominance needed to communicate with the suspects well. The deception aspect is important in promoting the communication of messages with the intention to get the actual information to deal with the legal demand for valid evidence. It also helps in reducing the errors associated with the lack of adequate evidence to promote compliance with the law.
A study by Vrij and Granhag (2012) has found major accurate percentages about the detection of the performance of the deception approach of interrogation. The level of accuracy is high when deception is used against the suspects as it puts fear on them to give the accurate information. Unlike other approaches including the use of nonverbal cues and linguistic, the method is more effective. The other methods are usually prone to errors and obtaining deceitful information. There are various concerns of valid, false confession that the proposed clues of deception are misread and misunderstood. The understanding of the deception leads to adverse investigators towards the process of behavioral understands due to interrogation methods used to extract a confession.
During the interrogation process, the interrogators always try to persuade the suspects to give the true account of information. Even though the information could be incriminating, the use of deception action helps to push the suspect in giving more information. It is clear that most of the interrogators do not have adequate information and evidence to pursue legal actions and proceedings. The approaches rely on the nonverbal cues and assessment of linguistic techniques that are seen to lead to deception (Cleary & Warner, 2016). For example, the use of Reid technique is critical in increasing the accuracy of information obtained during the interrogation process. The concept of detecting deception during interrogation process is critical to determine whether persons are either guilty or innocent.
The concept of the presumption of guilt is useful, as it focuses on the identification of confession by suspects who are seen to be guilty of certain crimes. The deceptive action of using false forensic information and evidence is critical in putting pressures on the suspects to get the reliable information. The action also works well with other modern interrogation techniques focused on reducing the resistance of the suspects and promoting confession. However, the use of falsified forensic evidence faces legal constraints and challenges. For example, in 1989, a case Florida v. Cayward saw the Appellate Court affirm that the police had violated the constitutional rights to due process in indicating a confession from the suspect (Vrij & Granhag, 2012). The evidence obtained from the suspect was deemed inadmissible due to the use of deception in the interrogation process. Thus, it is important for the police officers to understand the parameters relates to the use of deceptive forensic evidence in the interrogation process.
It is clear that the use of the false forensic evidence to push the suspect in giving out information leads to the question on the validity of the information obtained during an interview. Most of the information obtained from the interrogations is false, and thus it limits the ability of the interrogators in getting quality information to support their cases. Also, the information obtained cannot be admissible in the courts due to the concerns about the validity and reliability of the information. Going forward, the tactic of using false forensic evidence should be changed to ensure that it does not lead to deceptive and false information should be obtained (Cleary & Warner, 2016). It is useful to come up with proper protocols and controls to limit using false information for the court cases. Thus, the changing of the tactic is appropriate in towards taking the right action to improve the quality of the evidence obtained during the interviewing process.
Based on personal experiences, the use of false forensic evidence in getting confessions could lead to adverse information such as false confessions from the suspects. Bull et al. (2009) note that the technique usually leads to false confession, which could affect the outcome of the criminal investigations. The police should ensure that all false confessions obtained from the deception approach are well examined to avoid the violation of laws. Various agencies and scholars have insisted on the need for the police agencies to integrate the relevant protocols to reduce the potential false confessions (Kelly et al., 2013). For example, the police agencies are often required to record audio and video files for the interrogation process. In most law enforcement agencies, the use of video recording interrogations is observed as an acceptable procedure. Police would be less likely to affect policy when the interrogations are recorded. The video recording is useful in reducing the false assertions made by the suspects which the police might use illegal actions.
In summary, the use of false forensic evidence is important in getting the adequate and true evidence about the various legal cases and proceedings. The interrogators can use the persuasion of the false forensic evidence and information in getting the suspects to reveal information about the case. It is also effective in getting confessions from suspects. The police should ensure that all false confessions obtained from the deception approach are well examined to avoid the violation of laws. It is useful to come up with proper protocols and controls to limit using false information as it violates the constitutional provisions of obtaining quality evidence. Therefore, it is significant for the police officers to understand the parameters relates to the use of deceptive forensic evidence in the interrogation process.
Bull, R., Valentine, T., & Williamson, T. (2009). Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: Current developments and future directions. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Cleary, H., & Warner, T. C. (2016). Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects. Law and Human Behavior, 40(3), 270.
Kelly, C. E., Miller, J. C., Redlich, A. D., & Kleinman, S. M. (2013). A taxonomy of interrogation methods. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19(2), 165.
Vrij, A., & Granhag, P. A. (2012). Eliciting cues to deception and truth: What matters are the questions asked. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1(2), 110-117.
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