Ella Fitzgerald Essay, Research Paper
Singer. Born April 25, 1917, in Newport News, Virginia. ( Though many biographical beginnings give her birth day of the month as 1918, her birth certification and school records show her to hold been born a twelvemonth earlier. ) Frequently referred to as the & # 8220 ; first lady of vocal, & # 8221 ; Fitzgerald enjoyed a calling that stretched over six decennaries. With her limpid modulation and a scope of three octaves, she became the preeminent wind vocalist of her coevals, entering over 2,000 vocals, selling over 40 million albums, and winning 13 Grammy Awards, including one in 1967 for Lifetime Achievement.
As a immature miss turning up in Yonkers, merely outside New York City, Fitzgerald loved music and dreamed of being a terpsichorean. She and a friend, Charles Gulliver, performed a dance modus operandi at the local nines. Fitzgerald besides had an early involvement in vocalizing, and was greatly influenced by Connee Boswell, the lead vocalist of a jazz-influenced jazz band called the Boswell Sisters.
In 1932, Fitzgerald & # 8217 ; s female parent died all of a sudden, and she went to populate with an aunt in Harlem. Fitzgerald was & # 8220 ; discovered & # 8221 ; two old ages subsequently, in an recreational competition at the Apollo Theater in Harlem, where she won foremost award for her rendering of a Boswell vocal, & # 8220 ; The Object of My Affection. & # 8221 ; She performed at the Harlem Opera House in 1935 before set downing a occupation as the featured singer in one of the epoch & # 8217 ; s top & # 8220 ; large bands. & # 8221 ; She made her first recording, & # 8220 ; Love and Kisses, & # 8221 ; later that twelvemonth with the set & # 8217 ; s leader, Chick Webb, on his record label, Decca. A swing version of the authoritative baby’s room rime, & # 8220 ; A-Tisket, A-Tasket, & # 8221 ; that Fitzgerald co-wrote with Webb and released in 1938, became her foremost hit recording and made her a national star.
When Webb, who had been her legal defender, wise man, and near friend, died in 1939, Fitzgerald served as the leader of his set until it broke up in 1942. She spent the war old ages touring with assorted route shows and executing as a soloist at wind and dark nines around the state, and made a figure of recordings with Decca, including such popular albums as Lullabies of Birdland and Sweet and Hot. She began to work with an improvisational manner of singing called & # 8220 ; scat, & # 8221 ; or & # 8220 ; Federal Bureau of Prisons, & # 8221 ; singing, based on the composite, self-generated instrumental manner of Dizzy Gillespie. In 1945, Fitzgerald recorded a scat version of & # 8220 ; Flying Home, & # 8221 ; which became one of the most influential vocal wind records of the decennary.
While on circuit with Gillespie & # 8217 ; s set in 1946, Fitzgerald met and fell in love with the bassist Ray Brown, whom she married in 1947. ( She had been antecedently married to Be
njamin Kornegay, a shipyard worker, but their biennial matrimony was annulled in 1943. ) Fitzgerald and Brown were divorced in 1952, but they continued to execute together in Brown’s ain wind jazz band.
Meanwhile, Fitzgerald had begun to work with Norman Granz, the showman of a popular series called & # 8220 ; Jazz at the Philharmonic. & # 8221 ; In 1955, she was the first creative person signed to Granz & # 8217 ; s new record label, Verve, and began entering a series of & # 8220 ; songbook & # 8221 ; albums. The first offering, a two-record set entitled Ella Fitzgerald Sings the Cole Porter Songbook ( 1956 ) led to eight other songbooks, each devoted to the work of a peculiar composer or composing squad: Harold Arlen, Irving Berlin, Duke Ellington, Jerome Kern, Frank Loesser, Johnny Mercer, Rodgers and Hart, and George and Ira Gershwin. The five-album Gershwin songbook is widely regarded as the finest of the aggregations. Through the songbook series, recorded between 1956 and 1964, Fitzgerald & # 8217 ; s alone vocal endowments reached an audience far beyond the wind universe.
Fitzgerald was a indefatigable performing artist, touring between 40 and 45 hebdomads every twelvemonth. Aside from her touring and recording attempts, she made characteristic movie visual aspects, including Ride & # 8216 ; Em Cowboy ( 1942 ) and Pete Kelly & # 8217 ; s Blues ( 1955 ) . In 1966, she moved from Verve ( which Granz had sold to MGM ) to Capitol Records, where she attempted to broaden her scope in dad recordings, let go ofing a state album and a record of Christmas music, among others. With Reprise Records, she made several albums of modern-day music, including vocals by the Beatles, Marvin Gaye, and Burt Bacharach. Fitzgerald returned to wind in 1973, when Granz formed a new label, Pablo. From 1973 to 1986, she made a series of recordings with the guitar player Joe Pass. In 1974, she played a wildly profitable two-week concert battle in New York, with fellow fables Frank Sinatra and Count Basie.
Get downing in the early 1970s, Fitzgerald began to endure from eyesight jobs and other complaints, complicated by diabetes. She continued to tour nationally and internationally, nevertheless, and kept up her feverish touring agenda good into the 1980s. In 1986, Fitzgerald was hospitalized for exhaustion, and subsequently underwent a fivefold coronary beltway. By 1990, she had cut back her visual aspects to a few per month. In 1993, both of her legs were amputated below the articulatio genuss due to circulative system complications from her diabetes.
The famously private Fitzgerald lived in Beverly Hills for many old ages. On June 15, 1996, she died at place at the age of 79, survived by her boy, Ray Brown, Jr. , and one grandchild.
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