Week 5 Discussion
Types of diabetes include type 1, type 2, gestational, as well as juvenile diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, there is very low or no production of insulin because the cells of pancreas that produce them have been destroyed, and the glucose is left to accumulate in the bloodstream. On the other hand, in type 2 diabetes there is normal production of insulin in the pancreas, but it does not have any effect on the body cells. As a result, glucose may accumulate in the bloodstream because pancreas cannot produce enough insulin. Type 1 diabetes is also called juvenile diabetes because it appears during childhood. Gestational diabetes mostly occurs during pregnancy. Hormones during this period may create resistance to insulin. After childbirth the blood sugar gets back to normal. Some of the factors that lead to body’s resistance to insulin include obesity, age, high blood pressure and lack of exercise. Accumulation of glucose in the bloodstream causes symptoms such as thirst, hunger, fatigue, and weight loss for all types of diabetes.
Insulin is used in treatment of Type 1 diabetes because underlying cause of the disease is lack of insulin. There are different categories of insulin depending on the strength, composition, cost and how they work. The doctor advices the patient on the capacity of the insulin during injection for accurate dosage. Patients with Type 1 diabetes need to know onset of insulin, its peak time and duration. Onset of insulin is the average time taken by the drug to normalize the sugar level; the peak time is the period when insulin is strong while duration of the insulin is the time the drug takes to work completely (DiMeglio et al.,2018).
There are various categories of insulin in the market. Rapid-acting insulin tend to work 15 minutes after it has been injected and lasts up to 4 hours, while Short-acting insulin takes effect after half an hour and remains effective for 6 hours. The other category of insulin is Intermediate-acting insulin which begin to work after 2 hours and works for up to 18 hours whereas Long-acting insulin work after 2 hours and tends to last almost 24 hours. These types of insulin may be injected separately or mixed (Ahmad, 2014).
Patient using mixed insulin should maintain standard on preparation of the insulin doses. They should not add any other insulin products unless prescribed by the doctor. Available premixed insulin products can only be used when the ratio of the mixture is appropriate. The mixture of rapid-acting insulin with a long-acting insulin should be injected 15 minutes prior to meal. Disposable syringes should be used to ensure sterility and to reduce risk of infection. Bacteriostatic additives should be used in preparation of insulin mixture to prevent growth of bacteria (Baynes, 2015).
Patient with Type 1 diabetes should include carbohydrate in their meals to maintain their blood glucose level. Healthier sources of carbohydrate include fruit and vegetables, and wholegrain starchy foods that lack added salt, sugar and saturated fats. They should also maintain a healthy, balanced diet that are lower in saturated fat, sugar and salt.
Type 1 diabetes comes with complications if it is not managed. Controlling the level of blood sugar can help manage these complications. Short term complications include Hypoglycemia and Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Hypoglycemia occurs when there is very low glucose and very high insulin in the bloodstream. Long-term complications include eye, kidney, heart and nerve diseases. The use of Insulin drugs can cause mild or serious side effects such as weight gain, low blood sugar, lumps due to insulin injections, depression and blurred vision.
Ahmad, K. (2014). Insulin sources and types: a review of insulin in terms of its mode on diabetes mellitus. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 34(2), 234-237.
Baynes, H. W. (2015). Classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. J diabetes metab, 6(5), 1-9.
DiMeglio, L. A., Evans-Molina, C., & Oram, R. A. (2018). Type 1 diabetes. The Lancet, 391(10138), 2449-2462.
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