Pathophysiology: Neoplastic Cells Proliferate


Question: �Neoplastic cells proliferate excessively, are autonomous in
> their growth, and grow in a disorganized manner.� Discuss these three
> phrases and the mechanisms by which cell proliferation control is lost in
> neoplasia, leading to excessive proliferation.
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Pathophysiology: Neoplastic Cells Proliferate
Neoplasia simply means the process of process of new development. This growth may occur in connective tissues, structural tissues or vessels like hemangioma and leiomyoma which constitutes the main parts of mesenchymal among others. In addition, epithelium are also affected. As a result, various organs containing epithelial cells like gut, kidney, lungs and epidermis are victims of neoplasia (Jørgensen 34). Non-glandular proliferations such as papilloma and pilomatrixoma are among non-glandular proliferations. There is formation of finger like projections on the surface of esophagus. This is commonly referred to as esophageal papilloma.
Adenoma is another case of glandular proliferations whereby, structures such as tubules and acini are formed. These occurs at the mammary glands, pulmonary vessels, renal tubules and intestines. However, there are cells from glandular tissue with no tubules or acini including pituitary, adrenal cortical and hepatocellular adenoma (Ueno et al. 23). Neoplasia may occur in the form of a polyp. This is a hyperplastic growth that protrudes from mucosal surface. They may result from inflammations. They mostly occur in urinary bladder and nasal sinuses
Neoplasia is associated with several inconsistencies including; lymphoma also referred to as lymph sarcoma. It is a disorder that affects lymphoid tissue. Leukemia affects the blood forming tissues leading to high rate of blood productions. Melanoma affect melanocytes leading to tumor. Melanocytoma is a benign tumor affecting melanocytes.
There some instances where neoplasia affects both mesenchymal and epithelial cells due to uncoordinated and autonomous which leads to lack of regulatory control during cell growth and divisions. Lack of proper monitoring of cell proliferation as well as differentiation leads to abnormal multiplication and therefore, development of tumors.

Work Cited
Jørgensen, Anne, et al. “Pathogenesis of germ cell neoplasia in testicular dysgenesis and disorders of sex development.” Seminars in cell & developmental biology. Vol. 45. Academic Press, 2015.
Ueno, Hideki, Jacques Banchereau, and Carola G. Vinuesa. “Pathophysiology of T follicular helper cells in humans and mice.” Nature immunology 16.2 (2015): 142-152.

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