This report briefly summarizes throughout my industrial training at Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute Kuala Terengganu. The industrial training period began from 25th June 2012 until 16th August 2012 under the Department of Promotion and Technology Development.
The objectives of this report are to provide details information about MARDI and its function especially for this MARDI Kuala Terengganu station. The briefing of tasks and activities throughout the training, challenges and solutions, knowledge and skills required, and as the training to expose student to the real workplace environment.
This report also covers some of the activities and tasks during my training period there. The activities included in this report are specifically focus on the food processing and the technology, projects with entrepreneurs, the renovation and upgrade the Technology Information Center and also the still ongoing research on use of GenKimo fertilizer on hybrid sweet corn crops.
The challenges such as given a task within constraints of time, less skills in operating the machine and less experience in food processing were had been solved. Some of the valuable experiences that I gained are on time management, communication skills, teamwork, food processing processes and creative thinking.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Industrial training program is one of the elective courses which are the most chosen by students to make up their credit hours of kuliyyah in order for them to complete their undergraduate studies. Industrial training is an important program because it will provide the students with academic and professional education in their courses. With practical working experience the students will enhance their skill and capability hence they are exposed to the world of employment. Therefore, this report is prepared in order to fulfill the requirement of this training in order to know what the students actually do and get during their industrial training period.
The objectives of this industrial training are to expose the students to the actual working environment, to enhance and supplement the knowledge and skills of the students, to develop the students in term of ability, competence and interpersonal relationship, to expose and familiarize the students to rules and regulations including safety, to develop the spirit of team work among the students and other working group members, and to assess the ability and competence of the students in preparing themselves to join the workforce upon the completion of their study
This report is briefly summarizes and covers all the details information about this institute, the activities, the tasks and functions that have been done and also the product or services provided by the institute and throughout my industrial training for the eight weeks starting from 25th June 2012 until 16th August 2012 under the Department of Promotion and Technology Development in MARDI Kuala Terengganu.
Malaysia Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Kuala Terengganu is the main station in Terengganu state. It plays an important role as the references center for all parties especially for entrepreneurs in improving and establishing their products. Besides, this station also involved in the development of food processing technology based on fish and active in giving advice, producing new products, providing modern technology in food processing and monitoring and help the entrepreneurs market their products.
The activities done in this station such, organize the development programs of IKS in agriculture and farming industry, activities connect industry with department, agency and industry parties that involve in process of technology transferring and innovation technology, training entrepreneurs through the test-bed technology facilities for fish-based products, execute activities related to development and transferring of technology to the target group especially public sector and small farmer, and do research in technology processing for fish-based products.
As an industrial training’s student, I was asking to involve and follow the activities done by the station and at the same time gain knowledge while working on with the entrepreneurs. In addition, I also involve in the new research project of MARDI in testing the effectiveness of GenKimo fertilizer on hybrid sweet corn and also helping renovate and upgrade the Technology Information Center of the station.
Thus, from all the activities and tasks given and done, I get a lot of knowledge about MARDI itself, the food processing technology, the machine operation, and learn how MARDI help the entrepreneur in marketing their products.
ESTABLISHMENT AND BACKGROUND OF MARDI
MARDI (Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute) is a statutory body known as the Agricultural Research Institute of Malaysia to carry out research work in agriculture, food, and agro-based. The MARDI research efforts have generated many new varieties and clones of plants, animal breeds and management systems, as well as the latest technology and post-harvest food processing have been developed for horticultural and livestock products.
In addition to carrying out contract research and development (R & D) projects, MARDI also provides technical and entrepreneurial development in food technology, agriculture and other fields related to the industry. The technical services provided in the form of advice, consultancy, technical training, laboratory services and quality assurance analysis, processing and product development and technology up-scaling.
Establishment and background
MARDI was established with the primary objective of generating and promoting new technology, appropriate and efficient for the development of food industry, agriculture and agro-based industries. MARDI Act 1969 has led to the establishment of MARDI on October 28, 1969. MARDI was fully operational in 1971. MARDI managed and driven in accordance with policies and regulations of the Board of Governors decided with the concurrence of Mardi Agriculture and Agro-based Industry. For financial matters, the Minister of Finance is also required. MARDI Scientific Council will ensure that the technical program MARDI level of quality and maximum effectiveness.
To conduct research in the scientific, technical, economic, and social construction of the production, use and processing of crops, livestock and food.
To serve as a center for collecting and disseminating information and advisory services relating to matters of scientific, technical and food-related economic, agricultural and agro-based industries.
To serve as a center providing specialist services in food, agriculture and agro-based.
Provides for various types of training to meet the development needs of food, agriculture and agro-based.
Assistance grants allocated for pure research and applied scientific, technical, and economic and development related to food, agriculture and agro-based industries.
To maintain liaison or statutory body with public and private organizations as well as foreigners who are involved in scientific research, technical, economic and social issues related to food, agriculture and agro-based.
To conduct research and commercial production.
To develop, promote and exploit the research results.
To serve the agricultural industry, food and agriculture based.
Amendments to MARDI Act (1990) which allowing MARDI to be involved in commercialization activities and subsequently ensued by the establishment of MARDITech Corporation Sdn. Bhd. (1992). The Act was further amended (2002).
Yielding MARDI’s certification with ISO 9001:1994 for quality management (1998) and ISO quality cap was earned when MARDI’s analytical laboratory was accredited with MS ISO/EC 17025 (2001), followed by MARDI being MS ISO 9001:2000 (2004).
Establishment of MARDI’s Test-Beds and incubators (2005).
Embracing of K-management as an operational culture (2005).
MARDI organizational restructuring (1st February 2002).
Establishment of additional research stations including in Sabah and Sarawak, based on agro-climatic zones and also in Mali and Malawi in Africa.
International recognition through collaborative networking with research organizations and universities in USA, Canada, Japan, Australia, Taiwan, China, ASEAN, and EU countries.
To be a world-renowned R&D organization in food, agriculture and bio-based industries by 2015.
To create, innovate, transfer and apply knowledge, competencies and services to transform the national food, agriculture and bio-based industries towards increased commercialization and competitiveness.
MARDI determined to produce appropriate technology, sustainable and viable and provide technology leadership to customers involved in the development of food and agriculture sector with dedication and professionalism. To achieve this, Mardi constantly strive to satisfy our customers by:
Produce 40 year technology with the potential for increased scale, pioneer or commercialized for the benefit of the food, agriculture and related industries.
Improving the performance of the target groups through the use of technology
Providing services related to the development of quality food and agriculture sector and accredited based on international standards.
Provide customer feedback on the status of application advice, information, training and expertise in technology-based Mardi within seven working days.
Manage the payment for supplies and services within 14 days from the date of receipt of complete documents from the supplier.
MARDI Quality Policy
MARDI is committed to:
Develop and promote appropriate and viable technology for customers in the food industry, agriculture and agro-based industries
Comply with the requirements of quality management system and continually improve
Once a year review objectives and quality policy at Management Review Meetings to ensure continuing suitability
Disseminate this quality policy to all responsibility center (RC) in MARDI and displays them in Mardi intranet site.
MARDI KUALA TERENGGANU
There are four MARDI’s stations in Terengganu which are:
Kuala Terengganu MARDI station
Jerangau MARDI station
Kemaman MARDI station
Besut MARDI station
MARDI Kuala Terengganu in Manir began operating in 1990, it is formerly known as the Seri Culture MARDI Research Station Kuala Terengganu. This station research and operation is mainly under food processing and technology fish-based products. In 2000, fish processing station of Department of Food Technology MARDI at Jalan Balik Bukit, Kuala Terengganu had been transferred its operation to Kuala Terengganu MARDI station. Kuala Terengganu MARDI station is located 10km from Kuala Terengganu via Kuala Terengganu-Kelantan road and near to Pekan Manir.
The main objectives of the establishment of this station are to support any activities of transferring and commercialization of technologies also research and innovation of technologies related to fish-based products. Besides, it also responsible to provide the infrastructure and supporting services to any transferring of technologies and study also expansion of income by optimizing the usage of natural resources.
In addition, the main activities at this station are under the Food Technology Center, Promotion and Technology Development Center and Station Management Center. These three central undergo different researches and functions such the functions of Food Technology Center are do the research to produce new technology especially in the field of after-pharming and processing of fisheries products, provide technical training for food and agriculture entrepreneurs and staff of government departments and agencies, and provide advice to entrepreneurs. The function of Promotion and Technology Development Center is to promote activities, technology transfer and commercialization that has been produced by MARDI while the Station Management Center function is to manage all the activities of all four Terengganu MARDI stations and manage the administration systems.
Functions of MARDI Kuala Terengganu station
Promotion activities, transferring technology and commercialization that has been produced for the eastern MARDI using mechanization:
Seminar, forum and industry dialog
Exposure to mass media and publications
Technical services Development of SMEs entrepreneurs
Technology incubator services
Support station by doing research on food technology especially development of fisheries products.
Do research about food technology to formulate new technologies especially in the field of handling the harvest and processing of fisheries products.
Supply the technical training for food and agriculture entrepreneurs to government employees and agencies.
Provide the analysis service laboratory to do research for food industry.
Placement staff to perform functions on technology transfer, research, management and administration.
PROMOTION AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER
(MARDI KUALA TERENGGANU)
To develop a technology transfer system can improve efficiency and effectiveness of technology innovation and commercialization of Mardi
Increase and accelerate the use of technology among small farmers and traditional producers of agricultural products.
To develop small and medium entrepreneurs (SMEs) in technology-based agricultural production and agro-based products.
To introduce the new technology that provides Test-Bed food processing facilities and products for entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneur Development Program
Entrepreneur Support Services
Entrepreneur Guidance Service
Special Projects of Entrepreneur Development
Industry Liaison Program
Development and Technology Transfer Program
Test-Bed Technology System
Test-bed technology system MARDI is one of the forms of support organized under the Entrepreneur Development Program. This system aims to improve the success of the small and medium enterprise in the production of food products through the use of technology.
It was launched and opened up on 7th June 2012 by Y. Bhg Dato’ Mohd Hashim bin Abdullah, Chief Secretary Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry. The two main functions of this system are processing laboratory equipped with machinery, equipment and small-scale production facility for selected food products and stimulate technology innovation process among entrepreneurs who want to expand and improve the quality and competitiveness of products in the market.
Services Offered in Test-Bed
Handling machine and equipment
Formulation and use of appropriate materials
Packaging, designing, labeling and presenting of products
Quality assessment and product analysis
GMP and HACCP certificate
Supporting technology Innovation
DESCRIPTION OF TASKS AND ACTIVITIES
Production of Keropok Lekor
Some call them fish fritters, fish sausages or fish sticks but in Terengganu, they are called keropok. All districts produce their own keropok but the famous ones are none better than those found in Kampong Losong in Kuala Terengganu. Keropok lekor are actually made from processed fish meat mixed with salt and sagoo flour. This mixture is then rolled into sausage shaped around 6 to 10 inches long and immediately cooked. It is a great afternoon snack normally dipped in Terengganu’s equally famous chili sauce.
They are made up of fish, flour and other ingredients. For Keropok Lekor, you can eat it in two ways. Deep fried or boiled. If you don’t really like the fishy smell, then better to take the deep fried as sometime the boiled one will have some fishy smell, especially when they are no longer hot.
Minch the fish meats in surimi block’s cutting machine.
Add some ice cubes and continue mincing the fish meat. Add sago flour and water. The mixture is stirred until it becomes soft dough in cross mixer machine.
The mixture is made into a cylindrical shape by forming machine.
Boil the water in versatile cookware. Add in one or two knotted pandan leaves. Drop the keropok lekor into the boiling water for about 30-35 minutes.
Wait for it to cool before keep in freezer for storage and also can be eaten like that without fry.
By using several machines in the processing, the making of keropok lekor become easier compared to traditional hand method. Besides, the shape of the keropok lekor looks nice and uniform.
Production of Modern Frozen Sata and Otak-otak
Sata is a concoction of fish meat with shallot and ginger paste, bask in coconut milk, are wrapped in banana leaf, folded into a shape of a cone, and stuck on the bamboo stick and barbequed over a low charcoal fire. Most famous are the sata from Kuala Kemaman. Through word of mouth, the place is flocked by locals as well as visitors from other states to get a taste of this delicious delicacy complete with coconut drinks. The stalls are actually the extension of villager’s house and visitors can also get a taste of slow-paced traditional way of life. But today, sata can be available in frozen packaging.
Rather than the usual mince fish otak-otak most people have accustomed to, this otak-otak or fish mousse is a fish based delicacy of which slices of fish are marinated and soaked in a thickly coated spices, mince shallots, onions, ginger, chilies and wrapped in banana leaves. The concoction is then wrapped in coconut leaf and cooked over a slow charcoal fire. Some places minced the fish meat with its spices while the famous ones in Kuala Kemaman still concocted the whole fish meat coated with spices. Some otak-otak use concoctions of prawn, squid or crab meat which gives choice of preferences to food lovers. Frozen otak-otak are becoming popular nowadays.
(Sata & Otak-otak)
All the ingredients are mixed up well by using the surimi block’s cutting machine and rotary mixer machine.
The dough form is shaped by using nugget forming machine.
The sata and otak-otak are baked in oven for about 20 minutes at 170-200°C.
After that the sata and otak-otak are blast-freeze by using blast-freezing equipment.
Then they are packing and keep under -20°C.
Sata and otak-otak processing techniques have been improved with the use of appropriate machinery and proper packaging material suitable for freezing.
The use of coconut milk powder reduces the fat content to 2%.
The quality of frozen sata and otak-otak can be maintained up to 5 months at -20°C.
Production of Soy Milk
Soy milk is made by soaking soybeans, grinding them with water. The fluid which results after straining is called soy milk. Soy milk is most commonly found in aseptic cartons. Most of the soy milk available in the market is flavored and fortified with extra calcium or vitamins. Some producers add thickeners to their soy milk to give it a mouth feel of cow’s milk. Traditionally, soy milk has a beany taste which is well accepted by the Chinese, but less by the Western palate.
Clean the soya beans and soak them in water before tossed.
Grind the soy beans with water in ratio 1:7.
Filter the mixture through a cheese cloth and recover the soy milk.
Heat the soy milk till boiling point, add sugar and continue boiling for about 5 to 10 minutes.
After cooling, the soy milk is ready and can be kept in the fridge for another 3 days.
Can keep fresh soy milk for up to 3 days in the refrigerator.
This is totally preservative-free.
Production of Tau foo fa
‘Tau Fu Fa’, also known as soy custard or silken tofu pudding is a silky-smooth Chinese dessert that seems to glide effortlessly down your throat. Some like it hot, some like it cold, and there are quite a few different ways to enjoy this dessert.
The process of making the tau fu fa is almost similar to that of making soy bean drink, and what makes it different is the additional step of adding in a curdling agent to set the dish. Usually the curdling agent is either gypsum powder or glucono delta-lactone (GDL) mixed with a small amount of water and corn flour, and they work to harden the soy mixture and help it set.
(Tau Foo Fa)
Glucono delta-lactone curdling agent
Knotted pandan leaves
(Tau Foo Fa)
Blend soy beans in batches with water in ratio 1:5.
Strain the soy bean mixture through a muslin cloth into a large cooking pot and discard the residues.
Bring soy bean milk to a boil over medium heat.
Mix curdling agent, cornflour and water in another bowl. Pour mixture into boiling pot and mix thoroughly.
Turn the heat off and cover the pot with a lid. Set aside in a heat proof container for approximately 30 minutes to let the mixture set. Do not open the lid until after 30 minutes.
Mix rock sugar, pandan leaves and water in another smaller pot. Boil over low heat until mixture thickens to reflect syrup.
(Tau Foo Fa & Syrup)
Dish out set Tau Foo Fa, layer by layer onto a bowl. Ensure you use a flat ladle or a turner to scoop out the layers.
Drizzle with sugar syrup.
I would advise using GDL powder, which is a naturally occurring food additive, instead of gypsum powder, which is made of calcium sulphate as it is said to be disadvantageous to our health.
Production of Fish Burger (Tilapia)
Production of Breaded Fish Fillet and Cutlet (Tilapia)
Activities to Meet MARDI Adopted Entrepreneurs
Meet the MARDI adopted entrepreneurs to see their business progress and to make sure that they follow MARDI evaluation and instructions. Apart from that, MARDI need to ask the entrepreneurs about their problems or difficulties and help them by giving they advise, information, and together find solutions for their problems.
SINKU Food Industries Sdn. Bhd.
Market improved, ask MARDI to develop MA center auto keropok lekor cutting machine.
Ask MARDI to contact the SME MARDI to overcome the difficulties to get the GMP for modification the cool room which is delayed due to no provision.
Experiencing problems in obtaining halal certification for lack of capital for plant modifications. In the process of obtaining a halal certificate Malaysia.
Hidayah Mohd Nasir Enterprise
Ask MARDI to help to solve problems regarding soft texture of cincau.
Ask for fried tofu course.
BM Food Industries Sdn. Bhd.
HACCP problems – no writing explanation on sauce cooking temperature of 90-95 degrees Celsius, ask MARDI for the analysis of why the protein content in the oyster sauce is reduced.
MADURA Industries Sdn. Bhd.
Facing problems in the product – the Sparkling Juice contain precipitate and cloudy.
Activities in Test-Bed by Entrepreneurs
Entrepreneur: Ahmad Sabri Omar
Product: Keropok lekor
Duration: 3 months
POK NOR SATA
Entrepreneur: Mohd Sahir bin Mohd Nor
Duration: 3 months
Project of Sweet Corn Hibrimas Tested Using GenKimo Fertilizer
Sweet corn hibrimas is one of the successful products from MARDI. We have an opportunity to visit to the Corn Farm located at area of Kuala Berang at twice. The first visit was to employ the Genkimo fertilizer and examine the effect to the corn trees. This type of fertilizer was applied immediately afler planted the tree. Then, the second visit was to measure the height of corn tree that have used Genkimo fertilizer.
Survey of Farmers’ acceptance of Organic Fertilizer (GENKiMO) application on sweet corn field in Kuala Berang, Terengganu.
To investigate the effectiveness of using GENKiMO bio-organic fertilizer in improving the growth of Hibrimas among selected farmers
To evaluate the viabilty of the projects
Brief Description of Project
(please include justification, key areas of research to be undertaken, and related research if any)
GENKiMO is a biotechnology product, which means “healthy probiotic microorganisms”. It is a type of probiotic that contains live microorganisms which are mainly comprised of small bacteria such as lactobacillus-celled, yeast and photosynthetic bacteria.
GENKiMO produced by natural fermentation and characterization using 100% of the local environment. Beneficial bacteria / effective, enzymes and acids help to increase the organic matter of internal health of livestock, improve environmental quality, enhance growth and disease resistance of plant growth, accelerate the decomposition of organic forces, restoring soil fertility and others.
Background of Hibrimas:
In 2008, MARDI collaborated with Green world genetics (GWG) and tropical fruit network (TFNET). The main purpose of this collaboration was is to evaluate 26 sweet corn hybrids for fresh consumption as well as canning purposes. From the preliminary evaluation, five potential sweet corn hybrids were selected. Selection were made based on the early maturing hybrid (65-68 days after planting), high yield (average yield of 250-300 g/cob), golden colored kernel with good kernel arrangement and uniform shape cob. From further evaluation over locations, the sweet 601 was found to the most leaf blight and the sweetness is within the range 14-15 brix. Besides, it also has tropical sweet corn hybrids which have the sh2 gene for sweetness.
Potential of Commercialization:
The mature Hibrimas are suitable for fresh consumption besides they also can be applying to many ways of cooking like boiling, grilling or steaming. However for hibrimas the most suitable way of cooking is by steaming fro not more than 10 minutes. This is to ensure the sweetness of hibrimas is retained. The kernel of the sweet corn can also be eaten as corn in cup or canned. Baby corn can also be harvested and eaten as vegetable. After harvesting the cob, the whole plant can be harvested and transformed into silage for animal feed or as composed fertilizer.
Advantages of Hibrimas Corn:
Hibrimas tree grows at an altitude of 200-220 cm capable of high productivity with an orderly arrangement of content.
Good farming practices, proper drainage system and application of appropriate fertilization, capable high yield.
Resistant to leaf blight disease.
Able to provide results that many of the nearly 22.000 hectares of land and increase productivity because it is more fruitful in a shorter period of about 68 days after planting.
CHALLENGES & SOLUTIONS
Along 8 weeks of internship, I have faced many challenges which need me to go through it and overcome them as quickly and proactively. The problems came sometimes can be handle but sometimes cannot.
The most challenges I had faced was the skill to operate the machines that are used in food processing. Besides, the lack of knowledge about food processing cause by different study or course I sit for in university limit my actions and make me feel burdensome or boring.
In addition, the working environment here is a bit challenging because I need to communicate and working together with the other senior staffs, need to do new things that I never done before this especially in food handling process which I had never learned before.
At the same time, I need to stand with some of the male staffs whom like to tease five of us include me, the industrial training students which sometimes a bit annoying. The unpleasant stories heard from the staffs also one of the challengers to me.
Although there are several challengers coming, I had never give up but always take it easy and manageable and see it from the positive side. Hence, the challengers in handling the machines and the tasks given which are likely not related to my study, I take it as easy and new matters in order to increase my experiences and knowledge thus, I can adapt with these situations quickly.
Apart from that, the teasing and unpleasant stories heard, I take it as a spirit to prove them that I can do it and I’m here not only to be an observer. I tried my best to involve in the activities and followed all the instructions and task given.
Usually, if I faced a problem regarding my tasks, I would refer to my supervisor, En. Mohd Faiz bin Musa and other senior assistants and staffs that have many experiences and knowledge. They were always ready to help me so; I learn many new things from them and try to become creative thinking and ready to solve problems. The understanding in many fields of knowledge is not waste because it is important as a backup for us to face in everyday life and works soon.
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS THAT HAVE BEEN ACQUIRED
Throughout the industrial training period, I have learned a lot of new knowledge and application which I did not get from my study in kuliyyah before.
Here, I was assigned to do food processing of fish-based products, handled machines, involved in sensory evaluation and analyze the data, involved in new still ongoing research on the use and effect of GenKimo fertilizers on the hybrid sweet corn crops compared to other organic and chemical fertilizers and also some office tasks. Besides, I was participated in project with entrepreneurs for varieties of food processing and development.
In term of skills, I learned to operate machines with standard of operation procedure (SOP). This includes ho
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