Economics Two Part assignment: I’m requesting help for a weekly forum no less than 250 words and a weekly assignment


Two Part assignment: I’m requesting help for a weekly forum no less than 250 words and a weekly assignment. Below are the step by step instructions: Part 1 : Weekly forum post: No less than 250 words in APA format and, at least, three different sources: Intermodal supply within the transport demand function can vary according to the nature of what is being transported, such as passengers, freight, and information. This is about supply and demand. For all 3 modes, what are some of the criteria or attributes of these functions that could cause the transportation to vary? Use some simple examples from your experience to answer this question and not just list items from the text. READING AND RESOURCES Konings, R., Priemus, H., Nijkamp, P.(2008). The future of intermodal freight transport: Operations, design and policy. pp 34-56. Below is a resume of this week Lesson: Impact of Geography on Transportation Systems Introduction Transportation systems are structures for moving people or goods from one place to another. Transport systems consist of three main components; the equipment which is what moves persons and goods from one place to another such as vehicles, airplanes, ship, and locomotives, the guide way which is what the equipment moves along such as highways and railways, and finally the operations plan which is a combination of procedures by which equipment such as vehicles are moved over the guide way also consisting of timetables, calendars, crew assignments, and control systems. Geography is split into parts such as distance from the equator, height above sea level, relief of the landscape, and topography. The geography of a location is one of the main determinants of the climate of that location. Geography includes the natural characteristics of the surface of the earth such as land formation, climate, currents, and the distribution of flora and fauna. Impact of Geography on Transportation Systems Transportation decision makers should study and understand the impact of geography on transport systems. Management may need to incorporate a variety of likely impacts of geography into their transportation investment decisions as well as their management policies. Due to the physical properties of water such as conferring buoyancy and less friction, maritime transportation is an effective means of moving large quantities of cargo over long distances (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2002). With maritime transportation routes mainly composed of seas, oceans, lakes, coasts, and rivers, these types of geography can have impacts on transport caused by such factors as change in water levels, rise in sea level, and changes in currents and waves. Coastal watersheds with low elevation experience recurrent storms during wet winter. Roads, railways, ports, transit corridors, and airports constructed low and close to a sea or ocean may be destroyed or caused to be inaccessible due to storms or variations in sea level (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2002). Apart from causing major impacts for port facilities and coastal shipping, changing cost lines and rising sea levels could also in the long run necessitate relocation of roads, railways, and airport runways. Tunnels used for transit passing underground, roads, and railways are subject to cases of flooding as indicated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2002). For example, in Alaska, melting permafrost could destroy roads, railways, bridges, and pipelines. In addition, residing water levels in Great Lakes could cause adverse impacts on shipping operations. Possible occurrence of hurricanes and other severe weather conditions could lead to repercussions on emergency evacuation planning, maintenance of facilities, and safety management for road transport, marine transport, and air transport as well. Also, changes in rain and snow fall that can lead to flooding can cause effects on transport safety and maintenance operations. In addition, extremely high temperatures can cause cracks on roads, airport runways, and railways. Permafrost coasts are susceptible to erosive courses as ice below the seabed and shoreline thaws out due to coming into contact with warmer air and water. Thaw subsidence at the shore enables even greater wave energy to reach such unconsolidated erodible substances (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2002). In Alaska, for example, coasts along Beaufort and Chukchi are two of the most susceptible seas to thaw subsidence and consequent erosion brought about by waves. Thawing permafrost along with freeze thaw cycle alters the active layer of soil which might lead to serious impacts to existing foundations of all types therefore destroying roads, railways, and airport runways. Geographical features especially weather impacts road safety through exposure to environmental risks and increased crash perils. For instance, Slack, Comtois and Rodrigue (2013) point out that more than 10% of passenger vehicle crashes every year occur when there is rain, snow, or sleet while roughly 13% of commercial vehicle crashes occur when it is raining, snowing, or foggy. Weather affects movement of transportation systems by reducing speed and volume of traffic, increasing delay time of travelling, and decreasing roadway capacity. Intermodal Supply and Demand All transportation systems have the common goal of satisfying a desired transport demand and each transport mode therefore satisfies the function of supporting mobility. Transportation is a service that has to be utilized immediately because its transport services cannot be stored unlike other resources it habitually carries. Mobility has to take place over transport infrastructure with a set capacity, giving rise to transport supply. In many ways, transport demand is responded to in even simpler ways such as walking. On the other hand, some instances require more complex and expensive infrastructures and means to provide mobility such as international air transportation. In a well functioning transport market, transport supply should be met by transport demand so that transport needs for mobility are met (Slack et al., 2013). Transport supply is the capacity of available transportation infrastructure and modes in a defined place at a specified time period. It is stated in terms of infrastructure, networks, and services. Transport demand is the need for transport expressed in terms of the number of people, quantity of goods, available time, and space. Intermodal supply refers to the capacity of terminals especially for air and maritime transportation systems. Intermodal supply depends on the transshipment capacity of intermodal infrastructures. For example, the utmost number of flights per day between New York and Chicago cannot exceed the daily capacity of the airports of New York and Chicago, as much as the New York Chicago air strip has a really high capacity (Notteboom & Rodrigue, 2015). Transport demand is conveyed at specific times and is connected to economic and social patterns. In most instances, transport demand is stable and recurrent which enables approximation of planning strategies; however, transport demand can also be unstable and uncertain which renders it difficult to offer sufficient services. Transport demand functions include passengers, freight, and information. For road and air transport systems for passengers, demand is derived from demographic characteristics of the population, for example, income, age, and living standards. Transportation of freight derives its demand from GDP, quantity of goods, modal preferences, and general economic activity (Notteboom & Rodrigue, 2015). For the information function of transport demand, demand is derived from a number of criteria such as population identified from the number of telephone calls, the volume of financial activities, the standard of living, and the levels of education. Conclusion Demand for transportation facilities and services are growing tremendously for both passenger and freight segments thereby straining a network that is already beyond capacity in some places. Much transport infrastructure is aging and obsolete and as money is used to maintain the already existing network, there will be lesser resources for new asset investments. Transport agencies are called upon to maintain and maximize the use of existing infrastructure still as demands for movement of goods and people grow along with costs for the services. Essentially, emphasis on safety and security should the main challenge to be tackled by the transportation community. References Notteboom, T. & Rodrigue, J. (2015). Transport supply and demand. Retrieved from Slack, B., Comtois, C. & Rodrigue, J. (2013). The geography of transportation systems. London. Routledge. U.S. Department of Transportation (2002). The potential impacts of climate change on transportation. Retrieved from Interesting Sites Department of Transportation – National Strategy to Reduce Congestion on America’s Transportation Network. Freight and Congestion &nbs Prev | Table Of Contents | Next Part 2: Assignment 2: Traffic Network Analysis PowerPoint In a PointPoint Presentation create a minimum of a 10 slide presentation on the above situation. This presentation must be in APA format with appropriate references cited. Remember that Wikipedia is not a credible academic resource – please use peer-reviewed sources from the university library. This assignment will be graded on content, grammar, and format. Instructions. Traffic Network Analysis PPT Which transportation network type is appropriate to use in the traffic analysis of your city if you were a traffic planner? As an example, if you were to use Washington, the networks to consider might be relative location (near the Potomac) and type of traffic. Describe your city’s traffic in some detail and then choose the appropriate network(s). In a Point Point Presentation create a minimum of a 10 slide presentation on the above situation. This presentation must be in APA format with appropriate references cited including in-text . Remember that Wikipedia is not a credible academic resource – please use the university library. This assignment will be graded on content, grammar, and format. Note that a presentation is not a paper that is copied/pasted into Word. Slides should contain short and concise bullet points. However, in-text citations are still required per APA guidelines. Assignment should be written in third person. Hint: Evaluate yourself based on the rubric to ensure your presentation has everything I’ll be looking for when grading. This assignment may not have been turned in for credit for any other class. You must give proper credit to your sources to avoid plagiarism. Submissions will be checked for plagiarism using Both rubric are attached:

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