Cadbury is a brand with a long history in New Zealand and a passionate commitment to making everyone feel happy. Cadbury is a confectionery company owned by Kraft Foods. Its main headquarter is in London, United Kingdom, and the company operates in more than 50 countries worldwide. John Cadbury shaped the business in 1824 on the name of Cadbury. The business started as a shop in a fashionable place in Birmingham. It sold things such as tea and coffee, mustard and a new sideline – cocoa and drinking chocolate, which John Cadbury prepared him using a mortar and pestle. In 1847 a large factory was rented in Bridge Street Birmingham. In the mean time John Cadbury was joined by his brother Benjamin and the name of the business became Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham. (Wikipedia, 2010)
In 1866 when the brothers introduced the process of pressing the cocoa butter out of the cocoa beans. The benefits for the Cadbury brothers was that they could use the butter to make different types of eating chocolate the first of which was the Cadburys dairy milk.
A description of Cadbury’s and their aims and objectives Cadbury is an international company that makes market and sells unique brands chocolate. Cadbury have done this successfully for over 200 years. The reason they are so successful is because they have a clear understanding of the needs of their consumers, customers and other stakeholders. Dunedin is a major centre for Cadbury Schweppes in the region, with the site playing host to ‘Cadbury World’ and being a major production and distribution centre. (Coursework, 2003)
Product and services
Dunedin is a major centre for Cadbury Schweppes in New Zealand and major production of Cadbury chocolates are done here. It is also called a major distribution centre of Chocolate. Some of the major products brands produced by Cadbury includes : Bars Dairy Milk, Crunchie, Caramel, Wispa, Boost, Picnic, Flake, Curly Wurly, Chomp, and Fudge; chocolate Buttons; the boxed chocolate brand Milk Tray and the twist-wrapped chocolates Heroes. As well as Cadbury’s chocolate, the company also owns Maynards and Halls, and is associated with several types of confectionery including former Trebor and Bassett’s brands or products such as Liquorices Allsorts, Jelly Babies, Flumps, Mints, Dolly Mix, Black Jack chews, Trident gum, and Soft mints.( Indiamart, 2012)
Market of interests
Cadbury Confectionery Ltd is the most dominant player in chocolate confectionery in New Zealand. The company rebounded from negative media attention in 2009 to reclaim a lost percentage point in value share during 2010, to account for 52%, making it by far the largest player in chocolate confectionery. (Euro monitor, 2011)
Chocolate is now one of the best sweet for everyone`s. It includes cocoa in it because of which it seems dark and sweet. The first is the growing share that high-cocoa dark chocolate makes up of the estimated $350 million to $400m of chocolate each year. (Wikipedia, 2012)It changes the tastes of chocolates to darker, richer chocolate the 72% cocoa content Dark Ghana slabs are now Whittaker’s biggest seller, while 70% cocoa Old Gold is Cadbury’s fastest-growing line mirrors our increasingly sophisticated taste for everything from coffee and tea, to olive oil and wine. (Whitakers, 2012)
Scarborough Fair, which is owned by a consortium of small, private investors in New Zealand and sources its cocoa from Peru, is aiming to foot it in the same large-format bar that has been so successful for Cadbury and Whittaker. Though its bars are slightly lighter (180g compared to 250g), they take up the same footprint on the shelf and the price per gram is only 2.3c, compared to the 1.9c for the dominant players in the supermarket slab market, in which Cadbury has a roughly 70% share, followed by Whittaker’s which claims roughly a 20% share. (Wikinvest, 2012)
Cadbury plc (NYSE:CBY) is confectionery company that makes 7.3% of the world’s chocolate (by dollar volume), 27% of the world’s gum, and 7.4% of its candy. Australia and New Zealand are CBY’s largest markets in the region. CBY leads the Australian confectionery market with a number one share in chocolate at 53%. (Wikinvest, 2012)Cadbury’s main chocolate brand in Australia is Cadbury Dairy Milk and in New Zealand, brands include Cadbury Dairy Milk and Moro. CBY has a number one position in New Zealand’s confectionery market with a 47% share.
Image:CBY_Revenue_and_Net_Profit.jpg (Source: Wikinvest, 2010)
Participates in the Global Competitive Marketplace
Cadbury plc, the producer of the Dairy Milk brand has reported a 6 per cent increase in profits last year. The increase in the sales was due to the increase in the marketing investment in the Dairy Milk products.
The marketing budget was increased from $87m last year to $120m, which is up 10.8% in respect to sales. Marketing indeed has helped the confectionary company gross a good deal of profit in this global economic storm. (Cadbury, 2012)
Cadbury’s most known brands, Dairy Milk, Halls and Trident helped boost growth by 11 percent. Dairy Milk with its finger licking chocolates obviously was a good performer in the Cadbury headquarters, London.
Cadbury chocolates especially Dairy milk makes use of less cocoa in its production that’s why its taste is not bitter and colour is not so as dark like other chocolates. So mostly the kids and the adults too opt for this chocolate as their sweet dish only because of its quality and taste. Cadbury is indeed a good example of how marketing strategies can help turn an unfavorable situation in to a favorable one. (Cadbury, 2012)
Adverse weather conditions have brought about global shortages for raw materials such as sugar and dairy products. Furthermore, political tensions in the Ivory Coast (where most of the world’s cocoa comes from) have pushed up the prices for cocoa. Consequently global commodity prices have surged which had a negative impact on chocolate confectionery manufacturers. Unlike other manufacturers, chocolate confectionery manufacturers have found it difficult to pass on price increases to consumers, given the predominant supermarket strategy to employ promotional pricing. (Euromonitor, 2011).Consequently, individual manufacturers are faced with the decision to either internalize cost increases to secure consumer demand and continue selling products on promotion or pass such costs onto consumers with the potential consequence of losing consumer demand to competitors. The strategy employed by manufacturers depended largely on whether they produced premium chocolate products or not. Premium chocolate product manufacturers found it easier to pass on cost increases, due to the higher price points of their products. Conversely, other manufacturers preferred to internalize their cost increases as much as possible. (Euromonitor, 2011)
External Environment impacts
The special taste and texture of Cadbury chocolate is based on long traditions of expertise in chocolate recipe and processing methods unique to Cadbury. In this competitive era and due to advancement in science, technologies are improving and getting more reliable for the people and new technology enables the process to be highly tuned to consumer’s evolving tastes and preferences. Chocolate production is a highly sophisticated, computer controlled process, with much of the new specialist technology and machinery being produced to Cadbury’s own design and specification.
The Dunedin facility employs over 700 personnel and produces in excess of 5,000t of chocolate crumb every year as well as finished products. (Cadbury, 2012). The factory is the largest chocolate manufacturing plant in New Zealand. It supplies finished products for the domestic markets in New Zealand and Australia and, in addition, exports chocolate crumb to Cadbury finishing plants in Australia, Pakistan and China. Dunedin in New Zealand was chosen by Cadbury because of its excellent infrastructure and a plentiful supply of rich milk for chocolate production. Chocolate crumb is a commodity that is in demand globally as the consumption of chocolate per capita worldwide increases to record levels. (Tourism.net, 2012)
Cadbury food labeling laws are very precise about what can and cannot be called chocolate.
Chocolate is any product made from cocoa nibs, cocoa mass, cocoa, fat-reduced cocoa or any combination of two or more of these ingredients, with or without extracted cocoa butter and sucrose.
Dark Chocolate must not contain less than 35% total dry cocoa solids, of which at least 14% must be dry non-fat cocoa solids.
Milk chocolate must either be 20:20, with a minimum of 20% dry cocoa solids (of which 2.5% non-fat cocoa solids) and a minimum of 20% milk solids (minimum 5% milk fat). Dairy Milk is this type of milk chocolate. (Skillsspace, 2012)
14:25, with a minimum of 25% dry cocoa solids (of which 2.5% non-fat cocoa solids) and a minimum of 14% milk solids (minimum 3.5% milk fat). This type of milk chocolate can be called “European or coating chocolate”. (Skillsspace, 2012)
The Food Standards Agency is responsible for checking that the law is upheld on the safety of materials that come into contact with food (e.g. food processing machinery and packaging) and food labeling. Labels must contain certain information, e.g. the product`s name, the company’s name, a list of ingredients, special storage instructions). Companies have to make sure they know what the law is and that they conform to it. Two important laws are:
Food Safety Act, 1990 Sale and Supply of Goods Act, 1994
Covers four main areas: Goods must:
1. Labeling 1. Be of a satisfactory quality
2. Additives 2. Fit the description given
3. Composition (or content) 3. Be fit for their purpose as made known to the seller
4. Public health and hygiene.
(Source: Skillsspace, 2012)
Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate is the leader chocolate in overall New Zealand. It will now include Fair trade Certified products in its range. Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate products becoming Fair trade Certified will increase Fair trade chocolate sales 20 fold, and double last year’s total sales of Fair trade Certified products in New Zealand and Australia. The scale of Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate going Fair trade is massive with more than 5.7 million Fair trade Certified Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate blocks in New Zealand and estimated 350 million Fair trade Certified Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate blocks globally in 2010. (Cadbury, 2012). The move is the result of nearly two years of work with Cadbury’s Fair trade partners globally. It follows more than 100 years of pioneering ethical chocolate production, including the ground-breaking Cadbury Cocoa Partnership where Cadbury is providing NZ$120 million over 10 years to improve the lives of cocoa farmers. (ChocolateCarnival, 2009)
Cadbury has invested NZ$69 million to turn Dunedin into a specialist factory and secure manufacturing and jobs in New Zealand.
â€¢ In the wake of rising operating and ingredient costs, Cadbury is reducing manufacturing costs so its products remain affordable at the checkout.
â€¢ The Dunedin upgrade into a world class specialist manufacturing facility is almost complete and it will make iconic products such as Cadbury Jaffas, Pascall Pineapple Lumps, Cadbury Chocolate Fish, Cadbury Pinky, and boxed chocolates for Australia and New Zealand as well as chocolate crumb, the base ingredient in Cadbury Dairy Milk chocolate.(Cadburyworld, 2012)
Cadbury Confectionery today confirmed that the restructuring of its New Zealand and Australian manufacturing operations into specialized Centers of Manufacturing Excellence is in its final stage. The project, originally announced back in September 2007 (with a further communication in August 2008) has already seen investment of $NZ69 million to improve the productivity, and secure the long-term future, of its New Zealand manufacturing operations.
The culture of Cadburys started out being paternalistic as the company was devoted to making its employees feel welcome and valued within the company. Cadburys relied on its staff very heavily as without a vast employee base the company would not be the big corporation it is today. Cadburys built their famous Bourneville site along with accommodation for gaining the attractions of an employee so the workforce would be close to their place of business. Along with this the factory was built in the middle of a garden so when employees had finished work or were on a break they had somewhere to relax as well as socialize with other colleges on a Sunday as the factory was closed.
Today Cadburys have become a company who has a culture, which is interested in keeping its stakeholders happy. Along with this and the advancement in technology Cadburys have now lost its broad employee range and replaced it with machines and now only employ enough staff to keep the machines going. By being stakeholder driven the company has now become controlled by shareholders who are mainly interested in the company making a profit. (123helpme, 2011)
Demography is the main thing if someone is selling the products. Cadbury, from his very beginning, has a same focus on his demography factors. Cadbury focuses on all the people whether it’s a child, youngsters, teenagers or oldies. The story starts with “Once upon a time in 1948â€¦” when Cadbury entered the Indian market. It originated from a town in the United Kingdom, Bourneville in 1905. (Cadbury, 2012)
As the Cadbury’s official web site suggests, its journey in India has been an eventful one. In the early 1990s, it tried to cater to the sweet tooth of the children. Those days they steered the market and took control over the company’s major market share. However, the strategy changed by letting out the secret that “Everyone has a child inside “and thus everyone craves for the taste of chocolate. Cadbury strategies went through a considerable change. It now catered from children to adults. There is some differentiation targeting as a variety of Cadbury products are available to cater for the individual needs of different groups of customers. But nowadays the people are suffering with diabetes. So the diabetic segment people started use of less chocolate or sugar free thing.
Diabetes: Diabetes occurs when there is too much glucose (sugar) in the blood. Over time, this can cause damage to many parts of the body. Diabetes is common – about 170,000 people in New Zealand have diabetes and rising rapidly as more of us are getting fatter.
Based on the ‘most likely’ future scenario, the diabetes epidemic is forecast to grow rapidly over the 15 years from 1996 to 2011. (Healthnavigator, 2012)
Forecast increase in number of (diagnosed) diabetics, 1996 to 2011
(Source: Healthnavigator, 2012)
In December 2006 Cadbury Schweppes, the well-known confectionery manufacturer, announced the expansion of its operation in New Zealand on the South Island in the city of Dunedin. The expansion project required a total investment of NZ$69m (â‚¬39m). (Cadburyworld, 2012). In August 2008, an additional investment was announced taking the total amount of investment in the project to NZ$69m. Part of the investment was contributed through the Investment New Zealand Strategic Investment Fund. This amount was around NZ$2m and was granted ostensibly for Cadbury to establish an international chocolate crumb research and product development centre at the Dunedin site. (Tourism, 2012)
Cadbury contributed a further NZ$17.5m for new buildings, plant and environmental work. The company provided a further NZ$500,000 for the R&D centre. (Foodprocessing, 2012). Contractors working for Cadbury Schweppes included Production Logistics NZ for control system integration and software development for the manufacturing control systems. Streak Automation has also worked on the Pack100 Wrapper Automation upgrade that involved the redesign and upgrade of the PLC and servo controls and mechanics for the high-speed wrapping machine, which wraps all of the small-size chocolate at the site. Finally, the manufacturing areas (surfaces, pipes, machinery and ceilings) at Dunedin use a special paint with low volatiles (low odor) to avoid tainting the products. (Foodprocessing-technology, 2011)
In 1890, James Henry Whittaker came to NZ and brought his chocolate knowledge from working for a confectioner in England at 14. Since 1896 he has been making Australasia’s premium chocolate. Today it is still owned and run by the Whittaker family. All the products are made in the factory in Porirua, Wellington and they source the best ingredients from all around the world. The Whittaker’s range now includes 65 delicious different treats. (Whittaker, 2012). It is exported to countries such as Singapore, Australia, Vietnam and India. The milk chocolate contains 33% cocoa, compared to their competitor, Cadbury, whose milk chocolate only contains 21% cocoa. The dark chocolate contains 50% to 72% cocoa. The cocoa comes from Ghana and Madagscar so it is some of the best quality chocolate in the world. It is all Halah accredited by FIANZ (excluding Rum and Raisin) and all gluten free (except Kiwifruit Block and Toffee Milks). Milk also isn’t an ingredient in the dark chocolate which is great for the lactose intolerant and for vegans. (Whittaker, 2012)
Blocks, Slab, Chunks, Sante, Toffee Milk, Bars, Square
Dark Ghana Pips
Super Market Stores
Dairy’s and convenience stores
Low price with best quality
Henri Nestlé gave his name to what is now the world’s largest food and beverage business, with over 280,000 employees, 456 factories in 84 countries and sales of more than $140 billion in 2008. In our region, Nestlé products have been available since the 1880’s and in 1885; around 125 years ago, the company was first registered in New Zealand. (Nestle, 2012)
Super Market Stores
Dairy’s and convenience stores
Nestle again decides it price on the basis of competition. The best think about the company nestle is that it is very flexible and it can come down with the price very quickly.
Publicity and Public Relations
Marketing Mixes and Profitability:
1. Whittaker: Whittaker’s markets a range of 250g Blocks, Slabs, Santé Bars and Chunks in supermarkets. In the molded Block Chocolate market, Whittaker’s has made a quantum jump in sales and retail sales for the brand at the end of May 2009 were $17 million with growth of 62.7% pushing sales at the end of May 2010 to $27.6m. This is a market that only grew 12.2% (Aztec Molded Block Market MAT). (Whittaker, 2012)
In addition, the company launched two new 250g Block varieties: Dark Peppermint and Milk Madagascar. The Dark Peppermint matches the 72% Dark Ghana with a fresh peppermint fondant, while Milk Madagascar is the first major chocolate block launched in New Zealand using beans from Madagascar. The beans give the chocolate a citrus note with hints of caramel and honey. Both varieties report success and a good reception from consumers. (Stuff, 2012)
Whittaker’s Peanut Slabs, Santé Bars and Chunks have also shown strong growth in the Enrobed Chocolate market, with sales growing 20.6% over the past 12 months (Aztec Enrobed Market MAT) in a market which grew by 8%. (Whitakers, 2012)
2. Nestle: Henri Nestlé gave his name to what is now the world’s largest food and beverage business, with over 280,000 employees, 456 factories in 84 countries and sales of more than $140 billion in 2008. In our region, Nestlé products have been available since the 1880’s and in 1885; around 125 years ago, the company was first registered in New Zealand. (Nestle, 2012)
Nestlé Kit Kat is the number one sub brand within the Bar Chunky segment with 14% value share of Bar Chunky in Total Supermarkets, and growing at 27% MAT, well ahead of the Bar segment growth of 11%. (FMCG, 2012). As market leader of this segment Nestlé continues to invest in Kit Kat communication to shoppers and consumers through a broad spectrum of media including TV, press and online with the Working like a Machine campaign. Also the market leader in white chocolate with good value share (ACNielsen Scan data to 23/05/2010), Nestlé Milky bar has recently launched ‘No Artificial Colours or Flavours’ to increase the brand’s appeal even more. (FMCG, 2012)
From the above research and explanations the marketing positioning of the Cadbury and his competitors are given below in the pie chart.
With consumers becoming even more concerned with healthy eating Cadburys would be wise to look into producing a low fat or fat free chocolate range. The advantages of this, as well as the British market, could open a potential US market where people are becoming more aware of healthy eating such as the Atkins diet. (123helpme, 2011)
If we talk about Whittaker chocolate, it is one of the chocolate which makes use of large amount cocoa which changes the chocolate into the dark one but large excess of it makes the chocolate bitter as well. There are large numbers of customers who opt for the dark chocolate. But nowadays people goes for a less sugar or sugar free chocolates. So it is must for a Whittaker to get new varieties with less cocoa. But no doubt the main potential of Whittaker is pure coca and cocoa butter with no vegetable fats.
Nestle is mainly known for its white chocolate that is milky bar. No other chocolate brand produces such a high growth sale chocolate. (Nestle, 2012)
Cadbury the chocolate leader aims to target all individuals who consume chocolate. Thus, it does have any specific segmentation targets. Cadbury chocolates are eaten by people of all ages, sexes, cultures, educational backgrounds, regions and on all occasions. It is not just for a taste but also people taste it on the celebration occasions. However, there is some differentiation targeting as a variety of Cadbury products are available to cater for the individual needs of different groups of customers. For example, a family block (350g) is available for families, Cadbury favourites is available as a gift while Flakes, Crunchie and Cherry Ripe is for individual use. (Chocolatecarnival, 2012)
Customers of Cadbury chocolate need a product that satisfies their desire for some quality chocolate. The taste of Cadbury chocolate is the benchmark amongst chocolate lovers. Chocolate is consumed as a snack or after meal desert as well as a gift product for all occasions. Chocolate is gifted during birthdays, special occasions such as Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day, gifted to guests at a wedding, celebrating victories as well as gifted while visiting relatives and friends. (Chocolatestuff, 2012)
But nowadays people are becoming health conscious. With consumers becoming even more concerned with healthy eating Cadbury would be wise to look into producing a low fat or fat free chocolate range. The advantages of this, as well as the Australian market, could open a potential NZ market where people are becoming more aware of healthy eating such as the Atkins diet. But there existed some complaints from the customers that in the Cadbury dairy milk chocolate packet of 200g there was only a 180g so it hit the customer`s mind. (Cadbury, 2012). Then the sale or image of Cadbury got low somehow but then again Cadbury produces new products with different ingredients and again it has attracted the people towards them. And the variation is given below.
This has been a steep learning curve for Cadbury and to their credit; they have really worked to rectify the situation. They reverted to the old recipe in NZ and apologized. However, even their apology to the public didn’t go to plan. When Cadbury used large press ads to make apologies for their actions, they neglected the space which caused them all the issues in the first place.
As it is found from the New Zealand statistics report that the total number of population is 4,431,043. It includes the entire age sectors group. Out of it 200,000 people have diabetes. So currently the main focus of Cadbury is on the people who are non diabetic 4,231,043. So Cadbury is launching different products to cater the needs of this large mass of people. (stas.gov.nz, 2012)
The pie chart shows the sectors of diabetic and non diabetic people and is given below:
Internal Environment impacts:
Cadbury has invested NZ$69 million to turn Dunedin into a specialist factory and secure manufacturing and jobs in New Zealand. Cadbury Confectionery today confirmed that the restructuring of its New Zealand and Australian manufacturing operations into specialized Centers of Manufacturing Excellence is in its final stage. The project, originally announced back in September 2007 (with a further communication in August 2008) has already seen investment of $NZ69 million to improve the productivity, and secure the long-term future, of its New Zealand manufacturing operations. (Cadbury.co.nz, 2012)
Internal organization and structure
Cadbury organization is based on a democratic. Management style decisions are made as a result of a consultation process involving various members of the organization (Cadbury). Cadbury Schweppes also have two different structures. The structure that they use for their board of directors has been re-designed to “clarify accountability and enable swifter diction-making.” (Quote taken from www.cadburyschweppes.com). Looking at the improved organization structure it is clear to see who is in charge of which departments within the business. (123Helpme, 2012)
Looking at Cadburys it is clear to see that the company, over time, has delivered the amount of: Workforce it employees and replaced them with more efficient machines. Outsourcing areas of the company like maintenance and market research. Employees are now multi skilled, thus able to work in more than one area of the business. The company has increased its production and profitability or the restructuring. The Cadbury factories all work independently and the company as a hole is decentralized as each factory uses the resources (E.g. milk) of the country they are in. (123Helpme, 2011)
Flow chart of Process Analysis at Cadbury
(Source: Slideshare, 2010)
Each of Cadburys factories have a HR department, which deal with the factories demand for: 1. New staff with a good skill level or possible past factory experience.
2. Train new/current staff to be able to use new equipment correctly and efficiently.
3. Help current employees with any problems they may have in their work place. (123Helpme, 2011)
Cadbury’s management style is democratic. This is when all members of staff work together as a team. The managers listen to the other employee’s ideas and suggestions before they go ahead with decisions. If ideas are found to be achievable and successful by the senior group, then it is taken forward. Then as a team they reach a decision. The approach of this style is that they care and listen to everyone in the teams view and what they think not just their own. This style can be used in both large and small groups. (Cadbury, 2012). It would work well in large motivated groups because they can come to a decision a lot quicker, but in a smaller group they can fail with coming up with a decision amongst themselves and will need real guidance and direction. If a decision cannot be made then a vote will take place and the outcome will be the one with the most votes. This management style is good for Cadbury because it motivates workers; with having power and decision-making and through this it allows them to be involved in the business. (Cadbury, 2012)
6) Research and Development
The Science & Product Development teams significantly influence the development of strategic plans and initiatives, leading cross functional teams to resolve technical and business challenges. They are relentless champions of continuous improvement, identifying new programs and insights to benefit the business, significantly contributing and influencing the direction of strategic initiatives to leverage us to a sustainable competitive advantage. (Itsyourkindofplace, 2011)
Cadbury believes that parents and guardians are the most important influence in the development of children. They do not advertise where children under the age of eight years are likely to be the majority of the audience. They also do not believe that it’s appropriate to sell our confectionery products through vending machines in primary schools and we will not do so. Cadbury will only provide vending machines in secondary schools when we’re asked to do so by the education or school authority, and when the products meet nutritional guidelines set by the authority. Cadbury organization is proud of its brands. They provide fun and enjoyment as treats or refreshment, and are valued for their functional benefits. They can be enjoyed as part of a balanced diet and lifestyle. They provide choice by offering variety and through innovation and encourage responsible consumption, as this is central to consumers continuing to enjoy our brands. (Cadbury, 2012)
Cadbury is a brand with a long history in New Zealand. Cadbury is a confectionery company owned by Kraft Foods and is the industry’s second-largest globally after Mars, Incorporated. Headquartered London, United Kingdom, the company operates in more than 50 countries worldwide. It has main branches in Australia, England, New Zealand and South Africa. In New Zealand the main factory is in Dunedin. (Wikipedia, 2012)
William was the second son of Richard Cadbury, who has strong Quaker traditions which influenced his whole life. William Cadbury established the Trust soon after his two years as Lord Mayor of Birmingham from 1919 to 1921, wishing to give more help to the causes in which he was interested. One such was the building of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, a medical centre with the space and facilities to bring together the small specialized hospitals scattered throughout Birmingham, giving them the benefit of up to date buildings, shared administration, shared services and hostels for nurses. Through this charity, he also secured several properties for the National Trust. (Bstrust, 2012)
Today trustees are guided by William Cadbury’s concern for the welfare and wellbeing of the i
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