# ACE HOMEWORK #1 PHIL 110 – Critical Thinking

ACE HOMEWORK #1
PHIL 110 – Critical Thinking

MASTERING TERMINOLOGY – Deductive and Inductive Arguments.

Instructions: For each sentence, determine whether the statement is true or false.

1. Deductive arguments involve the claim that if all the premises of the argument are true then the conclusion must be true.

2. The conclusion of an inductive argument is a necessary consequence of its premises.

3. Valid arguments must be deductive.

4. Deductive arguments can be unsound.

5. If a deductive argument is valid it is automatically a good argument.

6. A valid argument can have true premises and a true conclusion.

7. A valid argument can have false premises and a false conclusion.

8. A valid argument can have false premises and a true conclusion.

9. A valid argument can have true premises and a false conclusion.

10. If a deductive argument has all true premises and a true conclusion, it is sound.

11. Some strong arguments are cogent.

12. All cogent arguments are strong.

13. If an argument is uncogent it must be an inductive argument.

14. A cogent argument can have false premises and a false conclusion.

15. A strong argument can have all true premises and a false conclusion.

ACE HOMEWORK #3
PHIL 110 – Critical Thinking

USING TRUTH TABLES TO DETERMINE THE TRUTH VALUE OF A COMPOUND STATEMENT

Instructions: determine the truth-value of each sentence by using the truth tables for logical operators. Letters A, B, C have ‘T’ as their truth-value; letters X, Y and Z have ‘F’ as their truth value.

1. (A & ~C)  X

2. ~ (X  Z)  B

3. ~ [Y & (Z  A)]

4. (A  ~X)  (Y  Z)

5. ~ (~B & Y)  (~B  ~Y)

6. ~ [(Z  A)  (A & ~Z)]

7. [(A  ~C)  (Y  X)]  ~C

ACE HOMEWORK #2
PHIL 110 – Critical Thinking

SYMBOLIZING COMPOUND STATEMENTS

Instructions: for each sentence, use capital letters and operators to symbolize the sentence’s logical structure. Note: each sentence requires using punctuation marks to group statements.

For example: Neither Albert nor Rudy win the race if Mushmouth is running.
Answer: M  ~ (A  R) or M  (~A & ~R).

1. Mercedes will introduce a hybrid model only if Lexus and BMW do.

2. Mariah Carey sings pop and either Elton John sings rock or Diana Krall sings jazz.

3. Either Mariah Carey sings pop and Elton John sings rock or Diana Krall sings jazz.

4. Not both Jaguar and Porsche make motorcycles.

5. If the Colts lose another game, then if the Texans win another game, then the Titans will make the playoffs.

6. If the Colts lose another game implies that the Texans win another game, then the Titans will make the playoffs.

7. Outback Steakhouse has a special on shrimp if and only if neither Texas Roadhouse nor Friday’s distribute coupons.

ACE HOMEWORK #5
PHIL 110 – Critical Thinking

USING THE SHORTCUT METHOD (INDIRECT TRUTH TABLES) TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF AN ARGUMENT

Instructions: Determine whether each argument is valid or invalid by using the shortcut method.

1. E  (P  Z)
~ (~P & ~Z)
~E
——————–
~Z

2. C  ~D
D  A
C  ~(R & A)
———————-
R  ~ C

3. (A  ~B)  (C  ~D)
~(C  ~D)
——————-
A  ~B

4. ~[(P  Z)  ~ (~P & ~Z)]
P
——————–
~Z

5. Q  ~(R & S)
S  ~T
T  R
——————–
R & Q

6. C  [Y  (Z  ~D)]
Y  Z
———————-
~C  D

ACE HOMEWORK #4
PHIL 110 – Critical Thinking

USING TRUTH TABLES TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF ARGUMENTS

Instructions: construct a truth-table for each argument. Then using the information given by the truth table indicate whether the argument is valid or invalid.

1. C  ~D
D
———————-
~ C

2. A  ~B
~A  ~B
——————-
A  B

3. P  Z
~ (~P & ~Z)
P
——————–
~Z

4. ~ [C & (D  ~C)]
C  ~D
———————-
~C  D

5. Z  [Y  (Z  ~Y)]
Y
————————
Z  ~Y

6. (A  ~X)  (Y  A)
X  (Y  ~A)
———————-
~ (X  ~Y)

ACE HOMEWORK #4
PHIL 110 – Critical Thinking

USING TRUTH TABLES TO DETERMINE THE VALIDITY OF ARGUMENTS

Instructions: construct a truth-table for each argument. Then using the information given by the truth table indicate whether the argument is valid or invalid.

1. C  ~D
D
———————-
~ C

2. A  ~B
~A  ~B
——————-
A  B

3. P  Z
~ (~P & ~Z)
P
——————–
~Z

4. ~ [C & (D  ~C)]
C  ~D
———————-
~C  D

5. Z  [Y  (Z  ~Y)]
Y
————————
Z  ~Y

6. (A  ~X)  (Y  A)
X  (Y  ~A)
———————-
~ (X  ~Y)

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